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Biochemical Study of Oxidative Stress Markers in the Liver, Kidney and Heart of High Fat Diet Induced Obesity in Rats

Saad A Noeman*, Hala E Hamooda and Amal A Baalash

Author Affiliations

Medical Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Egypt

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Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome 2011, 3:17  doi:10.1186/1758-5996-3-17

Published: 3 August 2011

Abstract

Background

Obesity has become a leading global health problem owing to its strong association with a high incidence of diseases.

Aim

To induce rat obesity using high fat diet (HFD) and to estimate oxidative stress markers in their liver, heart and kidney tissues in order to shed the light on the effect of obesity on these organs.

Materials and methods

Sixty white albino rats weighing 150-200 g were randomly divided into two equal groups; group I: received high fat diet for 16 weeks, and group II (control group): received only normal diet (rat chow) for 16 weeks. Blood samples were taken for measurement of lipid profile, tissue samples from liver, heart and kidney were taken for determination of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PCO), reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and the activities of glutathione S- transferase (GST) glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and paraoxonase1 (PON1) enzymes.

Results

Data showed that feeding HFD diet significantly increased final body weight and induced a state of dyslipideamia. Also our results showed a significant increase MDA and PCO levels in the hepatic, heart and renal tissues of obese rats, as well as a significant decrease in the activity of GST, GPx and PON 1 enzymes. On the other hand CAT enzyme activity showed significant decrease only in renal tissues of obese rats with non significant difference in hepatic and heart tissues. GSH levels showed significant decrease in both renal and hepatic tissues of obese animals and significant increase in their heart tissues. Correlation studies in obese animals showed a negative correlation between MDA and PCO tissue levels and the activities of GPx, GST and PON1 in all tissues and also with CAT enzyme activity in renal tissues. Also a negative correlation was detected between MDA & PCO tissues levels and GSH levels in both hepatic and renal tissues. While positive correlation was found between them and GSH levels in heart tissues.

Conclusion

High fat diet-induced obesity is accompanied by increased hepatic, heart, and renal tissues oxidative stress, which is characterized by reduction in the antioxidant enzymes activities and glutathione levels, that correlate with the increase in MDA and PCO levels in most tissues. This may probably contribute to the additional progression of obesity related problems.