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Open Access Research

Oxidized low density lipoprotein and total antioxidant capacity in type-2 diabetic and impaired glucose tolerance Saudi men

Essam Eldin Mohamed Nour Eldin1*, Abdullah Almarzouki2, Adel Mohamed Assiri1, Osman Mohammed Elsheikh3, Badreldin Elsonni Abdalla Mohamed4 and Abdullatif Taha Babakr5

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Abdia, Makkah, Saudia Arabia

2 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudia Arabia

3 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, International University of Africa, Khartoum, Sudan

4 Department of Biochemistry, Sciences Faculty for Girls, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudia Arabia

5 Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudia Arabia

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Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome 2014, 6:94  doi:10.1186/1758-5996-6-94

Published: 30 August 2014

Abstract

Background

Oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDL) convert these native particles into pathogenic, immunogenic and atherogenic particles. Factors enhance LDL oxidation are poorly understood, especially in conditions of hyperglycemia. The present study was conducted to investigate which metabolic conditions are associated with the promotion of LDL oxidation in different glycemic situations.

Methods

Adult male participants (274) were selected from patients admitted to the outpatient department of Diabetes Center in Al-Noor Specialized Hospital in Makkah and other citizens and residents in the city. The studied group was classified into three sub-groups: Group-I: control group of non-diabetic normal subjects, Group-II: subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and Group-III: cases of type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Measurement of fasting blood glucose, 2 hour post-prandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides, serum cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ox-LDL, Total Antoxidant capacity (TAC) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were performed. The obtained results were statistically analyzed.

Results

Oxidation of native LDL increase nearly two folds in Type-2 DM group compared to controls. There is also significant increase in Ox-LDL of IGT group compared to controls. The correlation between Ox-LDL concentration and HbA1c in the whole population of the study confirms the increased Ox-LDL in subjects with hyperglycemia. A negative correlation exists between the concentration of Ox-LDL and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in each studied group and in the whole population of the study as well. A positive correlation also exists between Ox-LDL concentrations and LDL values, more clear in controls and Type-2 DM, while this correlation was not significant in IGT group. The ratio of LDL oxidation as expressed by ox-LDL/LDL was increased in IGT group compared to control. More significant increase was observed in type-2 DM group.

Conclusion

We concluded that the concentration of Ox-LDL increased in subjects with type-2 DM and IGT compared to controls. Moreover, oxidation of native LDL was associated with low levels of TAC and positively correlated with LDL levels, total cholesterol, HbA1c, body mass index (BMI) and increased age.

Keywords:
Oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL); Total antioxidant capacity; Prediabetics; Malondialdehyde (MDA)